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Composer: Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809)

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StockholmTon Koopman conducts

Ton Koopman conducts
Bach, Haydn
Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra; Ton Koopman

StockholmPiemontesi with Koopman and the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic

Piemontesi with Koopman and the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic
Bach, Mozart, Haydn
Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra; Ton Koopman; Francesco Piemontesi

Santiago de CompostelaClasiquísmo

Clasiquísmo
Mozart, Sammartini, Haydn
Real Filharmonía de Galicia; Enrico Onofri

MadridSinfónico 11: En tiempos de angustia

Sinfónico 11: En tiempos de angustia
Dutilleux, Haydn
Orquesta Nacional de España; David Afkham; Gautier Capuçon; Christina Gansch; Sophie Harmsen; Robin Tritschler

SendaiSendai Philharmonic Orchestra Subscription Concert No.324

Sendai Philharmonic Orchestra Subscription Concert No.324
Prokofiev, Haydn, Beethoven
Sendai Philharmonic Orchestra; Kentaro Kawase
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Truls Mørk joins Herbert Blomstedt and the Boston Symphony

Herbert Blomstedt conducts the Boston Symphony © Winslow Townson
Herbert Blomstedt returns to the Boston Symphony for a rewarding matinee program of Haydn and Brahms. 
*****
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Van Kuijk Quartet captures enigmatic Ligeti in Liverpool

Van Kuijk Quartet © Nikolaj Lund
The classical masterpieces of Haydn and Schubert miss the spot, but Ligeti and Poulenc enthral in the splendid setting of the Concert Room, St George’s Hall, Liverpool.
***11
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Flute, harp and Haydn in Macclesfield

Northern Chamber Orchestra © Sara Porter Photography
Katherine Baker and Lucy Wakeford delighted in Mozart, Debussy and Fauré with the Northern Chamber Orchestra in a concert crowned by an undeservedly rare symphony by Haydn. 
***11
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Beethoven to remember from Hadland and the RTÉ NSO

Christian Ihle Hadland © Nikolaj Lund
A charming, thoughtful account of Beethoven's First Piano Concerto by Norwegian pianist Christian Ihle Hadland, while the NSO under the baton of Stutzmann delivered wonderful Haydn and Mendelssohn Symphonies. 
****1
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Aoi Trio makes a celebrated return to Suntory Hall’s Blue Rose

Aoi Trio © Suntory Hall
Fresh from victory in the ARD Competition's Piano Trio category, the Aoi Trio returned to Tokyo's Suntory Hall for a celebratory recital. 
Biography

Haydn, as Naxos puts it, is the subject of many paternity suits. Chamber music fans revere him as the father of the string quartet. He pioneered the a highly structured form of music where different instruments converse with each other. During the course of this conversation, the themes they play are transformed and developed, all the while training your ear to anticipate the pleasure of a return to the home key.

While Haydn didn't actually invent the term "symphony" (the word dates back at least to Gabrieli in 1597), his output of 104 symphonies transformed the genre and formed the base from which romantic and modern symphonies were derived.

Haydn did not have an easy life: the son of a wheelwright, he left the family home at six in the hope of a musical career via the church choir, from which he was unceremoniously dismissed when his voice broke. He was frequently hungry, and it was not until 1761 that he achieved stable employment with the Esterházy family, a job which was to last over thirty years.

In spite of his hard life and bouts of debilitating illness, his music is suffused with good humour, and he was respected by his contemporaries as a model of good character.

David Karlin, December 2008

Click here for a page of Haydn Trivia...


Biography of Haydn by the BBC's Terry Barfoot

Haydn trained as a choirboy at St Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna before embarking upon his long career. His first appointment was as music director at Lukavec, but financial problems soon closed Count Morzin’s orchestra and terminated this employment.

In 1761 Haydn entered the service of the Esterházy family, where he remained for thirty years. Beginning as Vice-Kapellmeister, he took over the leading position in 1766, succeeding Gregor Werner. In the early years of this service Haydn’s orchestra comprised at least six violins, three violas, three cellos and two double-basses, together with pairs of oboes and horns, with other instruments added occasionally.

His relationship with the Esterházy establishment, first at Eisenstadt and from 1767 at Esterháza (the new palace modelled on Versailles), enabled Haydn to view his isolation positively: "Cut off from the world, I was forced to become original." His development was crucial to the evolution of the classical style. While he did not invent the symphony or the string quartet, more than any other composer he guided these genres from infancy to maturity. It is hardly surprising that he inspired Mozart and other composers beyond.

The palace of Esterháza contained an opera house, and after 1777 opera became Haydn’s priority for several years. The "heroic-comic drama" Orlando paladino of 1782 gained an international reputation, with performances in Vienna and Prague. Mixing seria and buffa styles, dramatic recitatives and dazzling arias combine with comic characterisation; the bluff squire Pasquino even has a patter catalogue aria. Other fine operas include La vera constanza (True Constancy) and La fedeltà premiata (Loyalty Rewarded).

Haydn composed more than a hundred symphonies and was imaginatively independent, his works invariably having special personalities. Several begin with slow movements in ‘church sonata’ style, including No. 22, The Philosopher (1764) and No. 49, La Passione (1768). He also contributed to the expressive Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) style, in which emotional intensity reacted against the more superficial galant style, as for instance in Symphony No. 44, Trauer (1772). Meanwhile, Haydn became famous throughout Europe, and in 1785 he received a prestigious commission from "Le Concert de la Loge olympique". The resulting Paris Symphonies (Nos. 82-87) were his most ambitious and sophisticated to date.

In 1790 Prince Nikolaus died, and Haydn was allowed to leave. The impresario Johann Peter Salomon travelled in person to invite him to London. He accepted, and between 1791 and 1795 composed twelve symphonies, Nos. 93-104, which are his crowning achievement. His finales particularly are miracles of intellectual organisation, combining with music’s most pointed wit.

Haydn led the way in developing the string quartet. Towards the end of his life he told his publisher that his acknowledged quartets should begin with Opus 9 (1771), omitting the first eighteen compositions. There is close development of the music, rather than the easier entertainment style. He also claimed his Opus 33 quartets (1781) were written 'in a new and special way'. Although mere sales talk, the boast is justified by the music, which inspired Mozart to return to quartet writing with a series of compositions that he dedicated to Haydn. By now there was a sophisticated public who might perform and hear the music over and over again, whereas symphonies could seldom be repeated. The process of understanding a continuum of developing sounds was quite new, and it was why these years brought music of such lucidity.

The ‘Tost’ Quartets, Opus 54, 55 and 64, were composed for the Viennese merchant Johann Tost, who had worked at Esterháza. The boundaries between drawing room and concert room were disappearing, and the Opus 71 and Opus 74 use the same devices, including slow introductions, as the London symphonies. The final quartets came after Haydn’s return to Vienna. In 1797 the Opus 76 set was composed, two years before the two last completed quartets, Opus 77. How fitting that the same patron, Prince Lobkowitz, simultaneously commissioned the first quartets, Opus 18, of the young Beethoven.

The keyboard sonatas display a variety of forms and moods, as well as taxing the dexterity of the player. Haydn’s London visits yielded his finest sonatas, including the marvelous C major, whose opening Allegro is symphonic in scale and scope.

The trip to London, which included the experience of seeing the sea for the first time in his life, released a new flow of creativity from Haydn. Following his return to Vienna, he remained at the summit of his creative powers, in trios and quartets, the magnificent oratorios The Creation and The Seasons, and the six Masses for Princess Marie Josepha Hermenegild. His final years, however, brought the misfortune of ill health and little creative work was possible. He died in Vienna on 31st May 1809, aged 77.

© Terry Barfoot/BBC

List of works
Alles hat seine Zeit HXXVc:3Arianna a Naxos, cantata, Hob XXVIb:2Berenice, che fai, Hob XXIVa:10, cantata for soprano & orchestraCello Concerto no. 1 in C major, Hob VIIb:1Cello Concerto no. 2 in D major, Hob VIIb:2Der Augenblick HXXVc:1Die Beredsamkeit, Hob XXVb:4Die Harmonie in der Ehe, Hob.XXVc:2Flötenuhrstücke, Hob XIX:1-32Harp SonataIl mondo della lunaInsanae et vanae curaeL'isola disabitata, Hob XXVIII:9: overtureMarie AntoinetteMass no. 11 in D Minor "Nelson Mass” or "Missa in Angustiis", Hob XXII:11Mass no. 14 in B flat major, "Harmoniemesse”, Hob XXII:14Minuet no. 1 in C major, Hob IX:16Piano Concerto (with Violin) in F major "Double Concerto”, Hob XVIII:6Piano Concerto in D major, Hob XVIII:11Piano Concerto in G major, Hob XVIII:4Piano Sonata in A flat major, Hob XVI:46Piano Sonata in B minor, Hob XVI:32Piano Sonata in C major, Hob XVI:48Piano Sonata in C major, Hob XVI:50Piano Sonata in D major, Hob XVI:51Piano Sonata in E flat major, Hob XVI:52Piano Sonata in E minor Hob XVI:34Piano Sonata in F major, Hob XVI:23Piano Sonata in G minor, Hob XVI:44Piano Trio in E flat major, Hob XV:10Piano Trio in G major, "Gypsy Rondo," Hob XV:25Piano Trio no. 26 in F sharp minor, Hob XV:13Piano Trio no. 31 in G major, Hob XV:32Piano Trio no. 35 in C major, Hob XV:21Piano Trio no. 37 in D minor, Hob XV:23Piano Trio no. 41 in E flat minor, Hob XV:31Piano Trio no. 43 in C major, Hob XV:27Piano Trio no. 45 in E flat major, Hob XV:29Piano sonata in D major, Hob XVI:37Scena di BereniceSinfonia Concertante in B flat major for oboe, bassoon, violin and cello, Hob I:105String Quartet in D major, Op.2 no.5, Hob III:11String Quartet in F major, Op.3 no.5, Hob III:17String Quartet no. 22 in G major, Op.17 no.5, Hob III:29String Quartet no. 23 in F minor, Op.20 no.5, Hob III:35String Quartet no. 25 in C major, Op.20 no.2, Hob III:32String Quartet no. 27 in D major, Op.20 no.4, Hob III:34String Quartet no. 29 in G major, Op.33 no.5, Hob III:41String Quartet no. 30 in E flat major "The Joke”, Op.33 no.2, Hob III:38String Quartet no. 32 in C major, "The Bird", Op.33 no.3, Hob III:39String Quartet no. 33 in D major, Op.33 no.6, Hob III:42String Quartet no. 34 in B flat major, Op.33 no.4, Hob III:40String Quartet no. 37 in C major, Op.50 no.2, Hob III:45String Quartet no. 40 in F major "Dream”, Op.50 no.5, Hob III:48String Quartet no. 42 in C major, Op.54 no.2, Hob III:57String Quartet no. 43 in G major, Op.54 no.1, Hob III:58String Quartet no. 45 in A major, Op.55 no.1, Hob III:60String Quartet no. 48 in C major, Op.64 no.1, Hob III:65String Quartet no. 49 in B minor, Op.64 no.2, Hob III:68String Quartet no. 50 in B flat, Op.64 no.3, Hob III:67String Quartet no. 51 in G major, Op.64 no.4, Hob III:66String Quartet no. 53 in D major "The Lark”, Op.64 no.5, Hob III:63String Quartet no. 54 in B flat major, Op.71 no.1, Hob III:69String Quartet no. 55 in D major, Op.71 no.2, Hob III:70String Quartet no. 56 in E flat major, Op.71 no.3, Hob III:71String Quartet no. 57 in C major, Op.74 no.1, Hob III:72String Quartet no. 58 in F major, Op.74 No.2, Hob III:73String Quartet no. 59 in G minor, "The Rider", Op.74 no.3, Hob III:74String Quartet no. 60 in G major, Op.76 no.1, Hob III:75String Quartet no. 61 in D minor "Fifths," Op.76 no.2, Hob III:76String Quartet no. 62 in C major "The Emperor", Op.76 no.3, Hob III:77String Quartet no. 63 in B flat major "Sunrise," Op.76 no.4, Hob III:78String Quartet no. 64 in D major, Op.76 no. 5, Hob III:79String Quartet no. 65 in E flat major, Op.76 no.6, Hob III:80String Quartet no. 66 in G major "Lobkowitz", Op.77 no.1, Hob III:81String Quartet no. 67 in F major, Op.77 No.2, Hob III:82String Quartet no. 8 in E major, Op.2 no.2, Hob III:8Symphony No. 85 in B flat major "La Reine"Symphony no. 1 in D majorSymphony no. 100 in G major "Military"Symphony no. 101 in D major "The Clock"Symphony no. 102 in B flat majorSymphony no. 103 in E flat major "Drumroll" (Paukenwirbel)Symphony no. 104 in D major "London"Symphony no. 13: Adagio cantabileSymphony no. 14 in A majorSymphony no. 22 in E flat major "The Philosopher"Symphony no. 26 in D minor "Lamentatione"Symphony no. 27 in G majorSymphony no. 34 in D minorSymphony no. 39 in G minorSymphony no. 41 in C majorSymphony no. 43 in E flat "Mercury"Symphony no. 44 in E minor "Mourning" (Trauersymphonie)Symphony no. 45 in F sharp minor "Farewell”Symphony no. 47 in G major "Palindrome”Symphony no. 48 in C major "Maria Theresia"Symphony no. 49 in F minor "La Passione"Symphony no. 52 in C minorSymphony no. 6 in D major "Le Matin"Symphony no. 60 in C major, "Il distratto",Symphony no. 69 in C major "Laudon”Symphony no. 7 in C major, "Le Midi"Symphony no. 73 in D major "La chasse”Symphony no. 8 in G major "Le Soir"Symphony no. 80 in D minorSymphony no. 81 in G majorSymphony no. 82 in C major "The Bear”Symphony no. 83 in G minor "The Hen"Symphony no. 86 in D majorSymphony no. 89 in F majorSymphony no. 90 in C majorSymphony no. 92 in G major "Oxford"Symphony no. 93 in D majorSymphony no. 94 in G major "Surprise"Symphony no. 95 in C minorSymphony no. 96 in D major, "Miracle"Symphony no. 97 in C majorSymphony no. 98 in B flat majorSymphony no. 99 in E flat majorTe Deum in C, for the Empress Marie ThereseThe Creation (Die Schöpfung), Hob XXI:2The Mermaid's song, Hob XXVIa:25The Seasons (Die Jahreszeiten) Hob XXI:3The Seven Last Words of Christ (for string quartet)The Seven Last Words of our Saviour of the Cross, Op.51Trumpet Concerto in E flat major, Hob VIIe:1 Violin Concerto no. 1 in C major, Hob VIIa:1Violin Concerto no. 4 in G major, Hob VIIa:4