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Komponist: Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809)

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Biographie

Haydn, as Naxos puts it, is the subject of many paternity suits. Chamber music fans revere him as the father of the string quartet. He pioneered the a highly structured form of music where different instruments converse with each other. During the course of this conversation, the themes they play are transformed and developed, all the while training your ear to anticipate the pleasure of a return to the home key.

While Haydn didn't actually invent the term "symphony" (the word dates back at least to Gabrieli in 1597), his output of 104 symphonies transformed the genre and formed the base from which romantic and modern symphonies were derived.

Haydn did not have an easy life: the son of a wheelwright, he left the family home at six in the hope of a musical career via the church choir, from which he was unceremoniously dismissed when his voice broke. He was frequently hungry, and it was not until 1761 that he achieved stable employment with the Esterházy family, a job which was to last over thirty years.

In spite of his hard life and bouts of debilitating illness, his music is suffused with good humour, and he was respected by his contemporaries as a model of good character.

David Karlin, December 2008

Click here for a page of Haydn Trivia...


Biography of Haydn by the BBC's Terry Barfoot

Haydn trained as a choirboy at St Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna before embarking upon his long career. His first appointment was as music director at Lukavec, but financial problems soon closed Count Morzin’s orchestra and terminated this employment.

In 1761 Haydn entered the service of the Esterházy family, where he remained for thirty years. Beginning as Vice-Kapellmeister, he took over the leading position in 1766, succeeding Gregor Werner. In the early years of this service Haydn’s orchestra comprised at least six violins, three violas, three cellos and two double-basses, together with pairs of oboes and horns, with other instruments added occasionally.

His relationship with the Esterházy establishment, first at Eisenstadt and from 1767 at Esterháza (the new palace modelled on Versailles), enabled Haydn to view his isolation positively: "Cut off from the world, I was forced to become original." His development was crucial to the evolution of the classical style. While he did not invent the symphony or the string quartet, more than any other composer he guided these genres from infancy to maturity. It is hardly surprising that he inspired Mozart and other composers beyond.

The palace of Esterháza contained an opera house, and after 1777 opera became Haydn’s priority for several years. The "heroic-comic drama" Orlando paladino of 1782 gained an international reputation, with performances in Vienna and Prague. Mixing seria and buffa styles, dramatic recitatives and dazzling arias combine with comic characterisation; the bluff squire Pasquino even has a patter catalogue aria. Other fine operas include La vera constanza (True Constancy) and La fedeltà premiata (Loyalty Rewarded).

Haydn composed more than a hundred symphonies and was imaginatively independent, his works invariably having special personalities. Several begin with slow movements in ‘church sonata’ style, including No. 22, The Philosopher (1764) and No. 49, La Passione (1768). He also contributed to the expressive Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) style, in which emotional intensity reacted against the more superficial galant style, as for instance in Symphony No. 44, Trauer (1772). Meanwhile, Haydn became famous throughout Europe, and in 1785 he received a prestigious commission from "Le Concert de la Loge olympique". The resulting Paris Symphonies (Nos. 82-87) were his most ambitious and sophisticated to date.

In 1790 Prince Nikolaus died, and Haydn was allowed to leave. The impresario Johann Peter Salomon travelled in person to invite him to London. He accepted, and between 1791 and 1795 composed twelve symphonies, Nos. 93-104, which are his crowning achievement. His finales particularly are miracles of intellectual organisation, combining with music’s most pointed wit.

Haydn led the way in developing the string quartet. Towards the end of his life he told his publisher that his acknowledged quartets should begin with Opus 9 (1771), omitting the first eighteen compositions. There is close development of the music, rather than the easier entertainment style. He also claimed his Opus 33 quartets (1781) were written 'in a new and special way'. Although mere sales talk, the boast is justified by the music, which inspired Mozart to return to quartet writing with a series of compositions that he dedicated to Haydn. By now there was a sophisticated public who might perform and hear the music over and over again, whereas symphonies could seldom be repeated. The process of understanding a continuum of developing sounds was quite new, and it was why these years brought music of such lucidity.

The ‘Tost’ Quartets, Opus 54, 55 and 64, were composed for the Viennese merchant Johann Tost, who had worked at Esterháza. The boundaries between drawing room and concert room were disappearing, and the Opus 71 and Opus 74 use the same devices, including slow introductions, as the London symphonies. The final quartets came after Haydn’s return to Vienna. In 1797 the Opus 76 set was composed, two years before the two last completed quartets, Opus 77. How fitting that the same patron, Prince Lobkowitz, simultaneously commissioned the first quartets, Opus 18, of the young Beethoven.

The keyboard sonatas display a variety of forms and moods, as well as taxing the dexterity of the player. Haydn’s London visits yielded his finest sonatas, including the marvelous C major, whose opening Allegro is symphonic in scale and scope.

The trip to London, which included the experience of seeing the sea for the first time in his life, released a new flow of creativity from Haydn. Following his return to Vienna, he remained at the summit of his creative powers, in trios and quartets, the magnificent oratorios The Creation and The Seasons, and the six Masses for Princess Marie Josepha Hermenegild. His final years, however, brought the misfortune of ill health and little creative work was possible. He died in Vienna on 31st May 1809, aged 77.

© Terry Barfoot/BBC

Werkverzeichnis
Allegro di moltoAntwort auf die Frage eines Mädchens HXXVIa:46Arianna a Naxos - Kantate, Hob.XXVIb:2Armida: OuvertüreAusgewählte LiederBerenice, che fai - Kantate für Sopran und Orchester, Hob.XXIVa:10Cellokonzert Nr. 1 in C-Dur, Hob.VIIb:1Cellokonzert Nr. 2 in D-Dur, Hob.VIIb:2Das Leben ist ein Traum, Hob XXVIa:21Die Jahreszeiten, Hob.XXI:3Die Schöpfung, Hob.XXI:2Die Verlassene HXXVIa:5Fantasia (Capriccio) in C major, Hob XVII:4Flute Quartet in G major, Op.5 no.2, Hob II:G4Flute Trio no. 1 in C major, "London", Hob IV:1Il mondo della lunaInsanae et vanae curaeKeyboard Sonata in G Major, Op. 37 no. 1, Hob. XVI:40 Klavierkonzert in D-Dur, Hob XVIII:11Klaviersonate C-Dur, Hob XVI:50Klaviersonate in Es-Dur, Hob XVI:52Klaviersonate in F-Dur, Hob XVI:23Klaviertrio Nr. 43 in C-Dur, Hob XV:27Klaviertrio in G-Dur, "Zigeunerrondo", Hob XV:25Kleine OrgelmesseL'Anima del Filosofo, Ossia Orfeo ed Euridice, Hob.XXVIII:13: overtureL'isola disabitata, Hob.XXVIII:9: OuvertüreL’anima del filosofo Hob.XXVIII:13: Perduto un altra voltaMass no. 6 in G major, "Missa Sancti Nicolai”, Hob XXII:6Messe Nr. 11 in d-Moll "Nelson” oder “Missa in Angustiis", Hob.XXII:11Minuet no. 1 in C major, Hob IX:16Notturno no. 1 in C major, Hob II:25Notturno no. 2 in F major, Hob II:26Orlando PaladinoOverture in D major, Hob Ia:7Philemon and Baucis: overture, Hob XXIXb:2Piano Sonata in C major, Hob XVI:48Piano Sonata in C minor, Hob XVI:20Piano Sonata in E flat major, Hob XVI:49Piano Sonata in E minor Hob XVI:34Piano Sonata in G minor, Hob XVI:44Piano Trio no. 14 in A flat, Hob XV:F1Piano Trio no. 28 in D major, Hob XV:16Piano Trio no. 37 in D minor, Hob XV:23Piano Trio no. 38 in D major, Hob XV:24Piano Trio no. 41 in E flat minor, Hob XV:31Piano Trio no. 42 in E flat major, Hob XV:30Piano Trio no. 45 in E flat major, Hob XV:29Scena di BereniceScottish and Welsh Folksongs, Hob. XXXIaSinfonia Concertante B-Dur für Oboe, Fagott, Violine und Cello, Hob I: 105Streichquartett Nr. 25 in C-Dur, Op.20 Nr.2, Hob III:32Streichquartett Nr. 29 G-Dur, Op.33 Nr. 5, Hob III: 41Streichquartett Nr. 30 in Es-Dur „The Joke", Op.33 Nr.2, Hob III:38Streichquartett Nr. 32 in C-Dur „Vogel", Op.33 Nr.3, Hob III:39Streichquartett Nr. 49 in h-Moll, Op.64 Nr.2, Hob III:68Streichquartett Nr. 53 in D-Dur "Die Lerche", Op.64 Nr.5, Hob. III:63Streichquartett Nr. 59 in g-Moll "Reiter-Quartett", Op.74 Nr.3, Hob III:74Streichquartett Nr. 61 d-Moll "Fifths," Op.76 Nr. 2, Hob III: 76Streichquartett Nr. 62 C-Dur "Kaiserquartett", Op.76 Nr. 3, Hob III: 77Streichquartett Nr. 63 in B-Dur „Sonnenaufgang", Op.76 Nr.4, Hob III:78String Quartet no. 16 in A major, Op.9 no.6, Hob III:24String Quartet no. 20 in D major, Op.17 no.6, Hob III:30String Quartet no. 22 in G major, Op.17 no.5, Hob III:29String Quartet no. 23 in F minor, Op.20 no.5, Hob III:35String Quartet no. 24 in A major, Op.20 no.6, Hob III:36String Quartet no. 26 in G minor, Op.20 no.3, Hob III:33String Quartet no. 27 in D major, Op.20 no.4, Hob III:34String Quartet no. 28 in E flat major, Op.20 no.1, Hob III:31String Quartet no. 31 in B minor, Op.33 no.1, Hob III:37String Quartet no. 35 in D minor, Op.42, Hob III:43String Quartet no. 42 in C major, Op.54 no.2, Hob III:57String Quartet no. 52 in E flat major, Op.64 no.6, Hob III:64String Quartet no. 54 in B flat major, Op.71 no.1, Hob III:69String Quartet no. 55 in D major, Op.71 no.2, Hob III:70String Quartet no. 58 in F major, Op.74 No.2, Hob III:73String Quartet no. 64 in D major, Op.76 no. 5, Hob III:79String Quartet no. 66 in G major "Lobkowitz", Op.77 no.1, Hob III:81String Quartet no. 67 in F major, Op.77 No.2, Hob III:82String Quartet no. 9 in F major, Op.2 no. 4, Hob III:10Symphonie Nr. 100 in G-Dur "Militär", Hob.I:100Symphonie Nr. 102 in B-Dur, Hob.I:102Symphonie Nr. 103 in Es-Dur "mit dem Paukenwirbel", Hob.I:103Symphonie Nr. 104 in D-Dur "London", Hob.I:104Symphonie Nr. 12 in E-Dur, Hob.I:12Symphonie Nr. 22 in Es-Dur "Der Philosoph", Hob.I:22Symphonie Nr. 26 in d-Moll "Lamentatione", Hob.I:26Symphonie Nr. 38 in C-Dur "Echo", Hob.I:38Symphonie Nr. 39 in G-Dur, Hob.I:39Symphonie Nr. 43 in Es-Dur "Merkur", Hob.I:43Symphonie Nr. 44 in e-Moll "Trauersymphonie", Hob.I:44Symphonie Nr. 45 in fis-Moll "Abschied", Hob.I:45Symphonie Nr. 49 in f-Moll "La Passione", Hob.I:49Symphonie Nr. 52 in c-Moll, Hob.I:52Symphonie Nr. 59 in A-Dur "Feuersymphonie", Hob.I:59Symphonie Nr. 6 in D-Dur "Le Matin", Hob.I:6Symphonie Nr. 70 in D-Dur, Hob.I:70Symphonie Nr. 73 in D-Dur "La chasse", Hob.I:73Symphonie Nr. 80 in d-Moll, Hob.I:80Symphonie Nr. 81 in G-Dur, Hob.I:81Symphonie Nr. 82 in C-Dur "Der Bär", Hob.I:82Symphonie Nr. 83 in g-Moll, "La poule", Hob.I:83Symphonie Nr. 85 in B-Dur "La Reine", Hob.I:85Symphonie Nr. 86 in D-Dur, Hob.I:86Symphonie Nr. 87 in A-Dur, Hob.I:87Symphonie Nr. 88 in G-Dur, Hob.I:88Symphonie Nr. 90 in C-Dur, Hob.I:90Symphonie Nr. 92 in G-Dur "Oxford", Hob.I:92Symphonie Nr. 94 G-Dur "Überraschung", Hob.I:94Symphonie Nr. 95 in c-Moll, Hob.I:95Symphonie Nr. 96 in D-Dur, "Miracle", Hob.I:96Symphonie Nr. 97 in C-Dur, Hob.I:97Symphonie Nr. 98 in B-Dur, Hob.I:98Te Deum in C-Dur für Kaiserin Maria TheresiaTrompetenkonzert in Es-Dur, Hob.VIIe:1Variationen f-Moll "Sonate, un piccolo Divertimento", Hob XVII: 6Violinkonzert Nr. 1 in C-Dur, Hob.VIIa:1Violinkonzert Nr. 2 in A-Dur, Hob.VIIa:3Violinkonzert Nr. 4 in G-Dur, Hob.VIIa:4