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Komponist: Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809)

November 2017
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Biographie

Haydn, as Naxos puts it, is the subject of many paternity suits. Chamber music fans revere him as the father of the string quartet. He pioneered the a highly structured form of music where different instruments converse with each other. During the course of this conversation, the themes they play are transformed and developed, all the while training your ear to anticipate the pleasure of a return to the home key.

While Haydn didn't actually invent the term "symphony" (the word dates back at least to Gabrieli in 1597), his output of 104 symphonies transformed the genre and formed the base from which romantic and modern symphonies were derived.

Haydn did not have an easy life: the son of a wheelwright, he left the family home at six in the hope of a musical career via the church choir, from which he was unceremoniously dismissed when his voice broke. He was frequently hungry, and it was not until 1761 that he achieved stable employment with the Esterházy family, a job which was to last over thirty years.

In spite of his hard life and bouts of debilitating illness, his music is suffused with good humour, and he was respected by his contemporaries as a model of good character.

David Karlin, December 2008

Click here for a page of Haydn Trivia...


Biography of Haydn by the BBC's Terry Barfoot

Haydn trained as a choirboy at St Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna before embarking upon his long career. His first appointment was as music director at Lukavec, but financial problems soon closed Count Morzin’s orchestra and terminated this employment.

In 1761 Haydn entered the service of the Esterházy family, where he remained for thirty years. Beginning as Vice-Kapellmeister, he took over the leading position in 1766, succeeding Gregor Werner. In the early years of this service Haydn’s orchestra comprised at least six violins, three violas, three cellos and two double-basses, together with pairs of oboes and horns, with other instruments added occasionally.

His relationship with the Esterházy establishment, first at Eisenstadt and from 1767 at Esterháza (the new palace modelled on Versailles), enabled Haydn to view his isolation positively: "Cut off from the world, I was forced to become original." His development was crucial to the evolution of the classical style. While he did not invent the symphony or the string quartet, more than any other composer he guided these genres from infancy to maturity. It is hardly surprising that he inspired Mozart and other composers beyond.

The palace of Esterháza contained an opera house, and after 1777 opera became Haydn’s priority for several years. The "heroic-comic drama" Orlando paladino of 1782 gained an international reputation, with performances in Vienna and Prague. Mixing seria and buffa styles, dramatic recitatives and dazzling arias combine with comic characterisation; the bluff squire Pasquino even has a patter catalogue aria. Other fine operas include La vera constanza (True Constancy) and La fedeltà premiata (Loyalty Rewarded).

Haydn composed more than a hundred symphonies and was imaginatively independent, his works invariably having special personalities. Several begin with slow movements in ‘church sonata’ style, including No. 22, The Philosopher (1764) and No. 49, La Passione (1768). He also contributed to the expressive Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) style, in which emotional intensity reacted against the more superficial galant style, as for instance in Symphony No. 44, Trauer (1772). Meanwhile, Haydn became famous throughout Europe, and in 1785 he received a prestigious commission from "Le Concert de la Loge olympique". The resulting Paris Symphonies (Nos. 82-87) were his most ambitious and sophisticated to date.

In 1790 Prince Nikolaus died, and Haydn was allowed to leave. The impresario Johann Peter Salomon travelled in person to invite him to London. He accepted, and between 1791 and 1795 composed twelve symphonies, Nos. 93-104, which are his crowning achievement. His finales particularly are miracles of intellectual organisation, combining with music’s most pointed wit.

Haydn led the way in developing the string quartet. Towards the end of his life he told his publisher that his acknowledged quartets should begin with Opus 9 (1771), omitting the first eighteen compositions. There is close development of the music, rather than the easier entertainment style. He also claimed his Opus 33 quartets (1781) were written 'in a new and special way'. Although mere sales talk, the boast is justified by the music, which inspired Mozart to return to quartet writing with a series of compositions that he dedicated to Haydn. By now there was a sophisticated public who might perform and hear the music over and over again, whereas symphonies could seldom be repeated. The process of understanding a continuum of developing sounds was quite new, and it was why these years brought music of such lucidity.

The ‘Tost’ Quartets, Opus 54, 55 and 64, were composed for the Viennese merchant Johann Tost, who had worked at Esterháza. The boundaries between drawing room and concert room were disappearing, and the Opus 71 and Opus 74 use the same devices, including slow introductions, as the London symphonies. The final quartets came after Haydn’s return to Vienna. In 1797 the Opus 76 set was composed, two years before the two last completed quartets, Opus 77. How fitting that the same patron, Prince Lobkowitz, simultaneously commissioned the first quartets, Opus 18, of the young Beethoven.

The keyboard sonatas display a variety of forms and moods, as well as taxing the dexterity of the player. Haydn’s London visits yielded his finest sonatas, including the marvelous C major, whose opening Allegro is symphonic in scale and scope.

The trip to London, which included the experience of seeing the sea for the first time in his life, released a new flow of creativity from Haydn. Following his return to Vienna, he remained at the summit of his creative powers, in trios and quartets, the magnificent oratorios The Creation and The Seasons, and the six Masses for Princess Marie Josepha Hermenegild. His final years, however, brought the misfortune of ill health and little creative work was possible. He died in Vienna on 31st May 1809, aged 77.

© Terry Barfoot/BBC

Werkverzeichnis
ApplaususArianna a Naxos - Kantate, Hob.XXVIb:2Arianna a Naxos, cantata, Hob XXVIb:2: excerptsArmidaArreglo del cuarteto de cuerda en do mayor, Hob.III:6 para guitarra, violín y violoncheloBannocks o'Barley meal, Hob XXXIa: 171Cellokonzert Nr. 1 in C-Dur, Hob.VIIb:1Cellokonzert Nr. 2 in D-Dur, Hob.VIIb:2Die Jahreszeiten, Hob.XXI:3Die Jahreszeiten, Hob.XXI:3: Welche Labung für die Sinne, Nr.9Die SchöpfungDie Schöpfung, Hob.XXI:2Die Schöpfung, Hob.XXI:2: Vorstellung des ChaosDie Sieben Letzten Worte unseres Erlösers am Kreuze (Orchesterfassung)Fantasia (Capriccio) in C major, Hob XVII:4Flute Trio no. 1 in C major, "London", Hob IV:1Flötenuhrstücke, Hob XIX:1-32Il mondo della lunaIl ritorno di Tobia, Hob XX1:1 : OvertureInsanae et vanae curaeJohn O'Badenyon Hob XXXIa:24bisKeyboard Sonata in G Major, Op. 37 no. 1, Hob. XVI:40 Klavierkonzert in D-Dur, Hob XVIII:11Klaviersonate C-Dur, Hob XVI:50Klaviersonate in C-Dur, Hob XVI:35Klaviersonate in Es-Dur, Hob XVI:52Klaviersonate in F-Dur, Hob XVI:23Klaviertrio Nr. 43 in C-Dur, Hob XV:27Klaviertrio in G-Dur, "Zigeunerrondo", Hob XV:25Kleine OrgelmesseL'anima del filosofo: Del mio core il voto estremoL'isola disabitata: Ouvertüre, Hob.XXVIII:9Lo speziale (The apothecary)Mass no. 3 in C major “St Cecilia Mass” or “Missa Cellensis”, Hob XXII:5Mass no. 6 in G major, “Missa Sancti Nicolai”, Hob XXII:6Messe Nr. 10 in C-Dur "Paukenmesse" (In Zeiten des Krieges), Hob.XXII:9Messe Nr. 11 in d-Moll "Nelson” oder “Missa in Angustiis", Hob.XXII:11Messe Nr. 12 in B-Dur "Theresienmesse", Hob.XXI:12Messe Nr. 14 in B-Dur "Harmoniemesse", Hob.XXII:14My Love she's but a lassie yet, Hob XXXIa:194Nocturne no. 1 in C major, Hob II:25O tuneful voice, Hob.XXXVIa:42Oboenkonzert in C-Dur, Hob VIIg:C1Orlando PaladinoOrlando Paladino: Aure chete, Verdi alloriPiano Sonata in A flat major, Hob XVI:46Piano Sonata in A major, Hob XVI:12Piano Sonata in B minor, Hob XVI:32Piano Sonata in C major, Hob XVI:48Piano Sonata in C minor, Hob XVI:20Piano Sonata in C sharp minor, Hob XVI:36Piano Sonata in E flat major, Hob XVI:49Piano Sonata in G major, Hob XVI:40Piano Sonata in G minor, Hob XVI:44Piano Trio in E flat major, Hob XV:10Piano Trio no. 31 in G major, Hob XV:32Piano Trio no. 44 in E major, Hob XV:28Piano Trio no. 45 in E flat major, Hob XV:29Piano sonata in D major, Hob XVI:37Pieces for Musical Clocks (Organ)Piercing Eyes, Hob.XXVIa:35Rattling roaring Willie, Hob XXXIa:227Sailor´s song Hob XXVIa:31Scena di BereniceSinfonia Concertante B-Dur für Oboe, Fagott, Violine und Cello, Hob I: 105Stabat Mater in G major, Hob XXbisStreichquartett Nr. 25 in C-Dur, Op.20 Nr.2, Hob III:32Streichquartett Nr. 53 in D-Dur "Die Lerche", Op.64 Nr.5, Hob. III:63Streichquartett Nr. 59 in g-Moll "Reiter-Quartett", Op.74 Nr.3, Hob III:74Streichquartett Nr. 60 G-Dur, Op.76 Nr.1, Hob III:75Streichquartett Nr. 62 C-Dur "Kaiserquartett", Op.76 Nr. 3, Hob III: 77Streichquartett Nr. 68 in d-Moll, Op.103, Hob III:83String Quartet in C major, Op.3 no.2, Hob III:14String Quartet no. 1 in B flat major "La chasse", Op.1 no. 1, Hob III:1String Quartet no. 11 in D minor, Op.9 no.4, Hob III:22String Quartet no. 21 in E flat major, Op.17 no.3, Hob III:27String Quartet no. 23 in F minor, Op.20 no.5, Hob III:35String Quartet no. 27 in D major, Op.20 no.4, Hob III:34String Quartet no. 29 in G major, Op.33 no.5, Hob III:41String Quartet no. 30 in E flat major “The Joke”, Op.33 no.2, Hob III:38String Quartet no. 31 in B minor, Op.33 no.1, Hob III:37String Quartet no. 32 in C major, "The Bird", Op.33 no.3, Hob III:39String Quartet no. 35 in D minor, Op.42, Hob III:43String Quartet no. 36 in B flat major, Op.50 no.1, Hob III:44String Quartet no. 42 in C major, Op.54 no.2, Hob III:57String Quartet no. 43 in G major, Op.54 no.1, Hob III:58String Quartet no. 44 in E major, Op.54 no.3, Hob III:59String Quartet no. 46 in F minor “The Razor”, Op.55 no.2, Hob III:61String Quartet no. 51 in G major, Op.64 no.4, Hob III:66String Quartet no. 54 in B flat major, Op.71 no.1, Hob III:69String Quartet no. 56 in E flat major, Op.71 no.3, Hob III:71String Quartet no. 61 in D minor "Fifths," Op.76 no.2, Hob III:76String Quartet no. 63 in B flat major "Sunrise," Op.76 no.4, Hob III:78String Quartet no. 64 in D major “Largo”, Op.76 no.5, Hob III:79String Quartet no. 65 in E flat major, Op.76 no.6, Hob III:80String Quartet no. 66 in G major "Lobkowitz", Op.77 no.1, Hob III:81String Quartet no. 67 in F major, Op.77 No.2, Hob III:82Symphonie Nr. 100 in G-Dur "Militär", Hob.I:100Symphonie Nr. 101 in D-Dur "Die Uhr", Hob.I:101Symphonie Nr. 102 in B-Dur, Hob.I:102Symphonie Nr. 103 in Es-Dur "mit dem Paukenwirbel", Hob.I:103Symphonie Nr. 104 in D-Dur "London", Hob.I:104Symphonie Nr. 12 in E-Dur, Hob.I:12Symphonie Nr. 22 in Es-Dur "Der Philosoph", Hob.I:22Symphonie Nr. 25 in C-Dur, Hob.I:25Symphonie Nr. 26 in d-Moll "Lamentatione", Hob.I:26Symphonie Nr. 27 in G-Dur, Hob.I:27Symphonie Nr. 28 in A-Dur, Hob.I:28Symphonie Nr. 29 in E-Dur, Hob.I:29Symphonie Nr. 39 in G-Dur, Hob.I:39Symphonie Nr. 41 in C-Dur, Hob.I:41Symphonie Nr. 43 in Es-Dur "Merkur", Hob.I:43Symphonie Nr. 44 in e-Moll "Trauersymphonie", Hob.I:44Symphonie Nr. 45 in fis-Moll "Abschied", Hob.I:45Symphonie Nr. 47 in G-Dur "Palindrom", Hob.I:47Symphonie Nr. 48 in C-Dur "Maria Theresia", Hob.I:48Symphonie Nr. 49 in f-Moll "La Passione", Hob.I:49Symphonie Nr. 50 in C-Dur, Hob.I:50Symphonie Nr. 52 in c-Moll, Hob.I:52Symphonie Nr. 53 in D-Dur "L'Impériale", Hob.I:53Symphonie Nr. 55 in Es-Dur "Der Schulmeister", Hob.I:55Symphonie Nr. 6 in D-Dur "Le Matin", Hob.I:6Symphonie Nr. 61 in D-Dur, Hob.I:61Symphonie Nr. 63 in C-Dur "La Roxelane", Hob.I:63Symphonie Nr. 7 in C-Dur "Le midi", Hob.I:7Symphonie Nr. 74 in E-Dur, Hob.I:74Symphonie Nr. 8 in G-Dur "Le soir", Hob.I:8Symphonie Nr. 80 in d-Moll, Hob.I:80Symphonie Nr. 82 in C-Dur "Der Bär", Hob.I:82Symphonie Nr. 83 in g-Moll, "La poule", Hob.I:83Symphonie Nr. 84 in Es-Dur "In nomine Domini", Hob.I:84Symphonie Nr. 85 in B-Dur "La Reine", Hob.I:85Symphonie Nr. 86 in D-Dur, Hob.I:86Symphonie Nr. 89 in F-Dur, Hob.I:89Symphonie Nr. 9 in C-Dur, Hob.I:9Symphonie Nr. 91 in Es-Dur, Hob.I:91Symphonie Nr. 92 in G-Dur "Oxford", Hob.I:92Symphonie Nr. 93 in D-Dur, Hob.I:93Symphonie Nr. 94 G-Dur "Überraschung", Hob.I:94Symphonie Nr. 96 in D-Dur, "Miracle", Hob.I:96Symphonie Nr. 98 in B-Dur, Hob.I:98The Britons (Y Brython), Hob XXXIb: 51Trompetenkonzert in Es-Dur, Hob.VIIe:1Variationen f-Moll "Sonate, un piccolo Divertimento", Hob XVII: 6Violinkonzert Nr. 1 in C-Dur, Hob.VIIa:1Violinkonzert Nr. 4 in G-Dur, Hob.VIIa:4