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Compositeur: Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809)

Rechercher des événements de musique classique, opéra et ballet | Haydn
Haydn, Joseph

Haydn, as Naxos puts it, is the subject of many paternity suits. Chamber music fans revere him as the father of the string quartet. He pioneered the a highly structured form of music where different instruments converse with each other. During the course of this conversation, the themes they play are transformed and developed, all the while training your ear to anticipate the pleasure of a return to the home key.

While Haydn didn't actually invent the term "symphony" (the word dates back at least to Gabrieli in 1597), his output of 104 symphonies transformed the genre and formed the base from which romantic and modern symphonies were derived.

Haydn did not have an easy life: the son of a wheelwright, he left the family home at six in the hope of a musical career via the church choir, from which he was unceremoniously dismissed when his voice broke. He was frequently hungry, and it was not until 1761 that he achieved stable employment with the Esterházy family, a job which was to last over thirty years.

In spite of his hard life and bouts of debilitating illness, his music is suffused with good humour, and he was respected by his contemporaries as a model of good character.

David Karlin, December 2008

Click here for a page of Haydn Trivia...

Biography of Haydn by the BBC's Terry Barfoot

Haydn trained as a choirboy at St Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna before embarking upon his long career. His first appointment was as music director at Lukavec, but financial problems soon closed Count Morzin’s orchestra and terminated this employment.

In 1761 Haydn entered the service of the Esterházy family, where he remained for thirty years. Beginning as Vice-Kapellmeister, he took over the leading position in 1766, succeeding Gregor Werner. In the early years of this service Haydn’s orchestra comprised at least six violins, three violas, three cellos and two double-basses, together with pairs of oboes and horns, with other instruments added occasionally.

His relationship with the Esterházy establishment, first at Eisenstadt and from 1767 at Esterháza (the new palace modelled on Versailles), enabled Haydn to view his isolation positively: "Cut off from the world, I was forced to become original." His development was crucial to the evolution of the classical style. While he did not invent the symphony or the string quartet, more than any other composer he guided these genres from infancy to maturity. It is hardly surprising that he inspired Mozart and other composers beyond.

The palace of Esterháza contained an opera house, and after 1777 opera became Haydn’s priority for several years. The "heroic-comic drama" Orlando paladino of 1782 gained an international reputation, with performances in Vienna and Prague. Mixing seria and buffa styles, dramatic recitatives and dazzling arias combine with comic characterisation; the bluff squire Pasquino even has a patter catalogue aria. Other fine operas include La vera constanza (True Constancy) and La fedeltà premiata (Loyalty Rewarded).

Haydn composed more than a hundred symphonies and was imaginatively independent, his works invariably having special personalities. Several begin with slow movements in ‘church sonata’ style, including No. 22, The Philosopher (1764) and No. 49, La Passione (1768). He also contributed to the expressive Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) style, in which emotional intensity reacted against the more superficial galant style, as for instance in Symphony No. 44, Trauer (1772). Meanwhile, Haydn became famous throughout Europe, and in 1785 he received a prestigious commission from "Le Concert de la Loge olympique". The resulting Paris Symphonies (Nos. 82-87) were his most ambitious and sophisticated to date.

In 1790 Prince Nikolaus died, and Haydn was allowed to leave. The impresario Johann Peter Salomon travelled in person to invite him to London. He accepted, and between 1791 and 1795 composed twelve symphonies, Nos. 93-104, which are his crowning achievement. His finales particularly are miracles of intellectual organisation, combining with music’s most pointed wit.

Haydn led the way in developing the string quartet. Towards the end of his life he told his publisher that his acknowledged quartets should begin with Opus 9 (1771), omitting the first eighteen compositions. There is close development of the music, rather than the easier entertainment style. He also claimed his Opus 33 quartets (1781) were written 'in a new and special way'. Although mere sales talk, the boast is justified by the music, which inspired Mozart to return to quartet writing with a series of compositions that he dedicated to Haydn. By now there was a sophisticated public who might perform and hear the music over and over again, whereas symphonies could seldom be repeated. The process of understanding a continuum of developing sounds was quite new, and it was why these years brought music of such lucidity.

The ‘Tost’ Quartets, Opus 54, 55 and 64, were composed for the Viennese merchant Johann Tost, who had worked at Esterháza. The boundaries between drawing room and concert room were disappearing, and the Opus 71 and Opus 74 use the same devices, including slow introductions, as the London symphonies. The final quartets came after Haydn’s return to Vienna. In 1797 the Opus 76 set was composed, two years before the two last completed quartets, Opus 77. How fitting that the same patron, Prince Lobkowitz, simultaneously commissioned the first quartets, Opus 18, of the young Beethoven.

The keyboard sonatas display a variety of forms and moods, as well as taxing the dexterity of the player. Haydn’s London visits yielded his finest sonatas, including the marvelous C major, whose opening Allegro is symphonic in scale and scope.

The trip to London, which included the experience of seeing the sea for the first time in his life, released a new flow of creativity from Haydn. Following his return to Vienna, he remained at the summit of his creative powers, in trios and quartets, the magnificent oratorios The Creation and The Seasons, and the six Masses for Princess Marie Josepha Hermenegild. His final years, however, brought the misfortune of ill health and little creative work was possible. He died in Vienna on 31st May 1809, aged 77.

© Terry Barfoot/BBC

Liste des oeuvres
Arianna a Naxos, cantate, Hob XXVIb: 2Cantate: Miseri noi, misera Patria, Hob. XXIV a: 7Canzonettas, Hob XXVIaClarinet Trio no. 3 in B major, Hob IV:B1Concerto pour piano en ré majeur, Hob XVIII: 11Concerto pour trompette en mi bémol majeur, Hob VIIe: 1Concerto pour violon no. 3 en la majeur, Hob VIIa: 3Concerto pour violon no. 4 en sol majeur, Hob VIIa: 4Concerto pour violoncelle no. 1 en ut majeur, Hob VIIb: 1Concerto pour violoncelle no. 2 en ré majeur, Hob VIIb: 2Die JahreszeitenII Mondo Della Luna: ouvertureIl mondo della lunaL'anima del filosofoL'isola disabitata, Hob XXVIII:9L'isola disabitata: ouverture, Hob XXVIII: 9La Création (Die Schöpfung), Hob XXI: 2La Création (Die Schöpfung), Hob XXI: 2 : Prélude, représentation du ChaosLes Saisons (Die Jahreszeiten) Hob XXI: 3Quatuor à cordes no. 17 en fa majeur, Op.17 no. 2, Hob III: 26Quatuor à cordes no. 19 en ut mineur, Op.17 no. 4, Hob III: 28Quatuor à cordes no. 20 en ré majeur, Op.17 no. 6, Hob III: 30Quatuor à cordes no. 21 en mi bémol majeur, Op.17 no. 3, Hob III: 27Quatuor à cordes no. 22 en sol majeur, Op.17 no. 5, Hob III: 29Quatuor à cordes no. 23 en fa mineur, Op.20 no. 5, Hob III: 35Quatuor à cordes no. 24 en la majeur, Op.20 no. 6, Hob III: 36Quatuor à cordes no. 26 en sol mineur, Op.20 no. 3, Hob III: 33Quatuor à cordes no. 27 en ré majeur, Op.20 no. 4, Hob III: 34Quatuor à cordes no. 28 en mi bémol majeur, Op.20 no. 1, Hob III: 31Quatuor à cordes no. 30 en mi bémol majeur“ The Joke”, Op.33 no. 2, Hob III: 38Quatuor à cordes no. 31 en si mineur, Op.33 no. 1, Hob III: 37Quatuor à cordes no. 32 en ut majeur, « The Bird », Op.33 no. 3, Hob III: 39Quatuor à cordes no. 37 en ut majeur, Op.50 no. 2, Hob III: 45Quatuor à cordes no. 50 en si bémol majeur, Op.64 no. 3, Hob III: 67Quatuor à cordes no. 57 en ut majeur, Op.74 no. 1, Hob III: 72Quatuor à cordes no. 60 en sol majeur, Op.76 no. 1, Hob III: 75Quatuor à cordes no. 61 en ré mineur « Les Quintes » Op.76 no. 2, Hob III: 76Quatuor à cordes no. 62 en ut majeur « L'Empereur », Op.76 no. 3, Hob III: 77Quatuor à cordes no. 63 en si bémol majeur « Lever de soleil » Op.76 no. 4, Hob III: 78Quatuor à cordes no. 64 en ré majeur“ Largo”, Op.76 no. 5, Hob III: 79Scena di BereniceSinfonia Concertante en si bémol majeur pour hautbois, basson, violon et violoncelle, Hob I: 105Sonate pour piano en mi bémol majeur, Hob XVI: 52Sonate pour piano en mi mineur Hob XVI: 34Sonate pour piano en si mineur, Hob XVI: 32Sonate pour piano en sol majeur, Hob XVI: 40Sonate pour piano en ut majeur, Hob XVI: 50String Quartet no. 40 in F major "Dream”, Op.50 no.5, Hob III:48Symphonie no. 1 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 101 en ré majeur « L'Horloge »Symphonie no. 102 en si bémol majeurSymphonie no. 103 en mi bémol majeur « Roulement de timbales » (Paukenwirbel)Symphonie no. 104 en ré majeur « Londres »Symphonie no. 44 en mi mineur « Funèbre » (Trauersymphonie)Symphonie no. 45 en fa dièse mineur “Les Adieux”Symphonie no. 49 en fa mineur « La Passione »Symphonie no. 50 en ut majeurSymphonie no. 6 en ré majeur « Le Matin »Symphonie no. 60 en ut majeur, « Il distratto »,Symphonie no. 62 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 64 en la majeur « Tempora mutantur »Symphonie no. 7 en ut majeur, « Le Midi »Symphonie no. 70 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 75 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 8 en sol majeur « Le Soir »Symphonie no. 80 en ré mineurSymphonie no. 83 en sol mineur « La Poule »Symphonie no. 85 en si bémol majeur « La Reine »Symphonie no. 86 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 88 en sol majeurSymphonie no. 90 en ut majeurSymphonie no. 91 en mi bémol majeurSymphonie no. 92 en sol majeur « Oxford »Symphonie no. 93 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 95 en ut mineurSymphonie no. 96 en ré majeur, « Miracle »Symphonie no. 97 en ut majeurSymphonie no. 98 en si bémol majeurSymphonie no. 99 en mi bémol majeurSymphony no. 22 in E flat major "The Philosopher"Symphony no. 31 in D major "Hornsignal”Symphony no. 59 in A major "Fire Symphony"Symphony no. 63 in C major "La Roxelane”The Return of Tobias, Hob XXI:1The Storm (Der Sturm) Hob XXIV a8Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle en sol majeur, « Rondo à la hongroise » Hob XV: 25Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle no. 22 en la majeur, Hob XV: 9Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle no. 41 en mi bémol mineur, Hob XV: 31Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle no. 44 en mi majeur, Hob XV: 28Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle no. 45 en mi bémol majeur, Hob XV: 29