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Compositeur: Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809)

Rechercher des événements de musique classique, opéra et ballet | Haydn
Biographie
Haydn, Joseph

Haydn, as Naxos puts it, is the subject of many paternity suits. Chamber music fans revere him as the father of the string quartet. He pioneered the a highly structured form of music where different instruments converse with each other. During the course of this conversation, the themes they play are transformed and developed, all the while training your ear to anticipate the pleasure of a return to the home key.

While Haydn didn't actually invent the term "symphony" (the word dates back at least to Gabrieli in 1597), his output of 104 symphonies transformed the genre and formed the base from which romantic and modern symphonies were derived.

Haydn did not have an easy life: the son of a wheelwright, he left the family home at six in the hope of a musical career via the church choir, from which he was unceremoniously dismissed when his voice broke. He was frequently hungry, and it was not until 1761 that he achieved stable employment with the Esterházy family, a job which was to last over thirty years.

In spite of his hard life and bouts of debilitating illness, his music is suffused with good humour, and he was respected by his contemporaries as a model of good character.

David Karlin, December 2008

Click here for a page of Haydn Trivia...


Biography of Haydn by the BBC's Terry Barfoot

Haydn trained as a choirboy at St Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna before embarking upon his long career. His first appointment was as music director at Lukavec, but financial problems soon closed Count Morzin’s orchestra and terminated this employment.

In 1761 Haydn entered the service of the Esterházy family, where he remained for thirty years. Beginning as Vice-Kapellmeister, he took over the leading position in 1766, succeeding Gregor Werner. In the early years of this service Haydn’s orchestra comprised at least six violins, three violas, three cellos and two double-basses, together with pairs of oboes and horns, with other instruments added occasionally.

His relationship with the Esterházy establishment, first at Eisenstadt and from 1767 at Esterháza (the new palace modelled on Versailles), enabled Haydn to view his isolation positively: "Cut off from the world, I was forced to become original." His development was crucial to the evolution of the classical style. While he did not invent the symphony or the string quartet, more than any other composer he guided these genres from infancy to maturity. It is hardly surprising that he inspired Mozart and other composers beyond.

The palace of Esterháza contained an opera house, and after 1777 opera became Haydn’s priority for several years. The "heroic-comic drama" Orlando paladino of 1782 gained an international reputation, with performances in Vienna and Prague. Mixing seria and buffa styles, dramatic recitatives and dazzling arias combine with comic characterisation; the bluff squire Pasquino even has a patter catalogue aria. Other fine operas include La vera constanza (True Constancy) and La fedeltà premiata (Loyalty Rewarded).

Haydn composed more than a hundred symphonies and was imaginatively independent, his works invariably having special personalities. Several begin with slow movements in ‘church sonata’ style, including No. 22, The Philosopher (1764) and No. 49, La Passione (1768). He also contributed to the expressive Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) style, in which emotional intensity reacted against the more superficial galant style, as for instance in Symphony No. 44, Trauer (1772). Meanwhile, Haydn became famous throughout Europe, and in 1785 he received a prestigious commission from "Le Concert de la Loge olympique". The resulting Paris Symphonies (Nos. 82-87) were his most ambitious and sophisticated to date.

In 1790 Prince Nikolaus died, and Haydn was allowed to leave. The impresario Johann Peter Salomon travelled in person to invite him to London. He accepted, and between 1791 and 1795 composed twelve symphonies, Nos. 93-104, which are his crowning achievement. His finales particularly are miracles of intellectual organisation, combining with music’s most pointed wit.

Haydn led the way in developing the string quartet. Towards the end of his life he told his publisher that his acknowledged quartets should begin with Opus 9 (1771), omitting the first eighteen compositions. There is close development of the music, rather than the easier entertainment style. He also claimed his Opus 33 quartets (1781) were written 'in a new and special way'. Although mere sales talk, the boast is justified by the music, which inspired Mozart to return to quartet writing with a series of compositions that he dedicated to Haydn. By now there was a sophisticated public who might perform and hear the music over and over again, whereas symphonies could seldom be repeated. The process of understanding a continuum of developing sounds was quite new, and it was why these years brought music of such lucidity.

The ‘Tost’ Quartets, Opus 54, 55 and 64, were composed for the Viennese merchant Johann Tost, who had worked at Esterháza. The boundaries between drawing room and concert room were disappearing, and the Opus 71 and Opus 74 use the same devices, including slow introductions, as the London symphonies. The final quartets came after Haydn’s return to Vienna. In 1797 the Opus 76 set was composed, two years before the two last completed quartets, Opus 77. How fitting that the same patron, Prince Lobkowitz, simultaneously commissioned the first quartets, Opus 18, of the young Beethoven.

The keyboard sonatas display a variety of forms and moods, as well as taxing the dexterity of the player. Haydn’s London visits yielded his finest sonatas, including the marvelous C major, whose opening Allegro is symphonic in scale and scope.

The trip to London, which included the experience of seeing the sea for the first time in his life, released a new flow of creativity from Haydn. Following his return to Vienna, he remained at the summit of his creative powers, in trios and quartets, the magnificent oratorios The Creation and The Seasons, and the six Masses for Princess Marie Josepha Hermenegild. His final years, however, brought the misfortune of ill health and little creative work was possible. He died in Vienna on 31st May 1809, aged 77.

© Terry Barfoot/BBC

Liste des oeuvres
Arianna a Naxos, cantate, Hob XXVIb: 2Armida: Barbaro, e ardisci ancor… Odio, furorArmida: ouvertureBannocks o'Barley meal, Hob XXXIa: 171Berenice, che fai, Hob XXIVa: 10, cantate pour soprano& orchestreCello Concerto no. 5 in C major, Hob.VIIb:5Concerto pour hautbois en ut majeur, Hob VIIg: 1Concerto pour piano en fa majeur, Hob XVIII: 7Concerto pour piano en ré majeur, Hob XVIII: 11Concerto pour piano en sol majeur, Hob XVIII: 4Concerto pour trompette en mi bémol majeur, Hob VIIe: 1Concerto pour violon no. 1 en ut majeur, Hob VIIa: 1Concerto pour violon no. 4 en sol majeur, Hob VIIa: 4Concerto pour violoncelle no. 1 en ut majeur, Hob VIIb: 1Concerto pour violoncelle no. 2 en ré majeur, Hob VIIb: 2David of the White Rock, Hob XXXIb:4Die JahreszeitenDie Landlust, Hob XXVIa:10Divertimenti: sélectionIl mondo della lunaIl ritorno di Tobia, Hob XX1: 1: OuvertureJohn O'Badenyon Hob XXXIa:24bisL'Anima del Filosofo, Ossia Orfeo ed Euridice, Hob. XXVIII: 13: ouvertureL'infedelta delusa: overtureL'infedeltà delusa: È la pompa un grand' imbroglioL'isola disabitata, Hob XXVIII:9L'isola disabitata: ouverture, Hob XXVIII: 9La CréationLa Création (Die Schöpfung), Hob XXI: 2La Création (Die Schöpfung), Hob XXI: 2 : Prélude, représentation du ChaosLes Saisons (Die Jahreszeiten) Hob XXI: 3Les Saisons: Hiver, ouvertureLes Sept Dernières Paroles du Christ en croix (pour quatuor à cordes)Les Sept Dernières Paroles du Christ en croix (version chorale) Hob XX: 2Les Sept Dernières Paroles du Christ en croix (version orchestrale), Hob XXLo Speziale, Hob. Ia:10: OuvertüreMesse no. 10 en ut majeur, "Missa in tempore belli" (en temps de guerre), Hob XXII: 9Messe no. 11 en ré mineur“ Nelson Messe” ou“ Missa in Angustiis « , Hob XXII: 11Messe no. 13 en si bémol majeur,“Messe de la Création”, Hob XXII: 13Motet « O coelitum beati »: AlleluiaMy Love she's but a lassie yet, Hob XXXIa:194Offertorium « Non nobis Domine »Orfeo ed Euridice, or The Soul of the PhilosopherOrgan Concerto in F MajorPhilemon et Baucis: ouverture, Hob XXIXb: 2Quatuor à cordes no. 1 en si bémol majeur « La chasse », Op.1 no. 1, Hob III: 1Quatuor à cordes no. 23 en fa mineur, Op.20 no. 5, Hob III: 35Quatuor à cordes no. 24 en la majeur, Op.20 no. 6, Hob III: 36Quatuor à cordes no. 25 en ut majeur, Op.20 no. 2, Hob III: 32Quatuor à cordes no. 26 en sol mineur, Op.20 no. 3, Hob III: 33Quatuor à cordes no. 27 en ré majeur, Op.20 no. 4, Hob III: 34Quatuor à cordes no. 28 en mi bémol majeur, Op.20 no. 1, Hob III: 31Quatuor à cordes no. 29 en sol majeur, Op.33 no. 5, Hob III: 41Quatuor à cordes no. 30 en mi bémol majeur“ The Joke”, Op.33 no. 2, Hob III: 38Quatuor à cordes no. 32 en ut majeur, « The Bird », Op.33 no. 3, Hob III: 39Quatuor à cordes no. 34 en si bémol majeur, Op.33 no. 4, Hob III: 40Quatuor à cordes no. 38 en mi bémol majeur, Op.50 no. 3, Hob III: 46Quatuor à cordes no. 41 en ré majeur « La Grenouille », Op.50 no. 6, Hob III: 49Quatuor à cordes no. 42 en ut majeur, Op.54 no. 2, Hob III: 57Quatuor à cordes no. 43 en sol majeur, Op.54 no. 1, Hob III: 58Quatuor à cordes no. 50 en si bémol majeur, Op.64 no. 3, Hob III: 67Quatuor à cordes no. 53 en ré majeur "L'alouette”, Op.64 no. 5, Hob III: 63Quatuor à cordes no. 60 en sol majeur, Op.76 no. 1, Hob III: 75Quatuor à cordes no. 61 en ré mineur « Les Quintes » Op.76 no. 2, Hob III: 76Quatuor à cordes no. 62 en ut majeur « L'Empereur », Op.76 no. 3, Hob III: 77Quatuor à cordes no. 63 en si bémol majeur « Lever de soleil » Op.76 no. 4, Hob III: 78Quatuor à cordes no. 64 en ré majeur“ Largo”, Op.76 no. 5, Hob III: 79Quatuor à cordes no. 66 en sol majeur « Lobkowitz », Op.77 no. 1, Hob III: 81Quatuor à cordes no. 67 en fa majeur, Op.77 no. 2, Hob III: 82Quatuor à cordes no. 68 en ré mineur, Op.103, Hob III: 83Rattling roaring Willie, Hob XXXIa:227Scottish and Welsh Folksongs, Hob. XXXIaShe never told her love, Hob XXVIa:34Sinfonia Concertante en si bémol majeur pour hautbois, basson, violon et violoncelle, Hob I: 105Sonate pour piano en la bémol majeur, Hob XVI: 46Sonate pour piano en mi bémol majeur, Hob XVI: 49Sonate pour piano en mi bémol majeur, Hob XVI: 52Sonate pour piano en mi majeur, Hob XVI: 31Sonate pour piano en mi mineur Hob XVI: 34Sonate pour piano en ré majeur, Hob XVI: 37Sonate pour piano en si mineur, Hob XVI: 32Sonate pour piano en ut majeur, Hob XVI: 50String Quartet no. 40 in F major "Dream”, Op.50 no.5, Hob III:48String Quartet no. 59 in G minor, "The Rider", Op.74 no.3, Hob III:74Symphonie no. 1 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 100 en sol majeur « Militaire »Symphonie no. 101 en ré majeur « L'Horloge »Symphonie no. 102 en si bémol majeurSymphonie no. 103 en mi bémol majeur « Roulement de timbales » (Paukenwirbel)Symphonie no. 104 en ré majeur « Londres »Symphonie no. 11 en mi bémol majeurSymphonie no. 13 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 27 en sol majeurSymphonie no. 43 en mi bémol majeur « Mercure »Symphonie no. 44 en mi mineur « Funèbre » (Trauersymphonie)Symphonie no. 45 en fa dièse mineur « Les Adieux »Symphonie no. 49 en fa mineur « La Passione »Symphonie no. 51 en si bémol majeurSymphonie no. 6 en ré majeur « Le Matin »Symphonie no. 60 en ut majeur, « Il distratto »,Symphonie no. 64 en la majeur « Tempora mutantur »Symphonie no. 68 en si bémol majeurSymphonie no. 70 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 73 en ré majeur“ La chasse”Symphonie no. 8 en sol majeur « Le Soir »Symphonie no. 82 en ut majeur “L'Ours”Symphonie no. 83 en sol mineur « La Poule »Symphonie no. 84 en mi bémol majeur “ En nomine Domini”Symphonie no. 85 en si bémol majeur « La Reine »Symphonie no. 88 en sol majeurSymphonie no. 90 en ut majeurSymphonie no. 92 en sol majeur « Oxford »Symphonie no. 93 en ré majeurSymphonie no. 94 en sol majeur « Surprise »Symphonie no. 96 en ré majeur, « Miracle »Symphonie no. 98 en si bémol majeurSymphonie no. 99 en mi bémol majeurSymphony no. 13: Adagio cantabileSymphony no. 22 in E flat major "The Philosopher"Symphony no. 26 in D minor "Lamentatione"Symphony no. 59 in A major "Fire Symphony"Te Deum en ut majeur, pour l'Impératrice Marie-ThérèseTe Deum no. 1 in C Major for Prince Nicolaus Esterházy Hob.XXIIIc:1The Britons (Y Brython), Hob XXXIb: 51The Seven Last Words of our Saviour of the Cross, Op.51Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle en sol majeur, « Rondo à la hongroise » Hob XV: 25Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle no. 35 en ut majeur, Hob XV: 21Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle no. 40 en fa dièse mineur, Hob XV: 26Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle no. 45 en mi bémol majeur, Hob XV: 29Variations en fa mineur « Sonate, un piccolo divertimento », Hob XVII: 6